Kotlin Programming Language
Some handy links:
- Kotlin Site
- Getting Started Guide
- Try Kotlin
- Kotlin Standard Library
- Issue Tracker
- Kotlin Blog
- Subscribe to Kotlin YouTube channel
- Follow Kotlin on Twitter
- Public Slack channel
- TeamCity CI build
Kotlin Multiplatform capabilities
Support for multiplatform programming is one of Kotlin’s key benefits. It reduces time spent writing and maintaining the same code for different platforms while retaining the flexibility and benefits of native programming.
- Kotlin Multiplatform Mobile for sharing code between Android and iOS
- Getting Started with Kotlin Multiplatform Mobile Guide
- Kotlin Multiplatform Benefits
- Share code on all platforms
- Share code on similar platforms
Build environment requirements
In order to build Kotlin distribution you need to have:
JDK 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 and 9
Setup environment variables as following:
JAVA_HOME="path to JDK 1.8" JDK_16="path to JDK 1.6" JDK_17="path to JDK 1.7" JDK_18="path to JDK 1.8" JDK_9="path to JDK 9"
For local development, if you're not working on bytecode generation or the standard library, it's OK to have only JDK 1.8 and JDK 9 installed, and to point
JDK_17 environment variables to your JDK 1.8 installation.
You also can use Gradle properties to setup
Note: The JDK 6 for MacOS is not available on Oracle's site. You can install it by
$ brew tap homebrew/cask-versions $ brew install --cask java6
On Windows you might need to add long paths setting to the repo:
git config core.longpaths true
The project is built with Gradle. Run Gradle to build the project and to run the tests using the following command on Unix/macOS:
or the following command on Windows:
On the first project configuration gradle will download and setup the dependencies on
intellij-coreis a part of command line compiler and contains only necessary APIs.
idea-fullis a full blown IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition to be used in the plugin module.
These dependencies are quite large, so depending on the quality of your internet connection you might face timeouts getting them. In this case you can increase timeout by specifying the following command line parameters on the first run:
./gradlew -Dhttp.socketTimeout=60000 -Dhttp.connectionTimeout=60000
Important gradle tasks
clean- clean build results
dist- assembles the compiler distribution into
ideaPlugin- assembles the Kotlin IDEA plugin distribution into
install- build and install all public artifacts into local maven repository
runIde- build IDEA plugin and run IDEA with it
coreLibsTest- build and run stdlib, reflect and kotlin-test tests
gradlePluginTest- build and run gradle plugin tests
compilerTest- build and run all compiler tests
ideaPluginTest- build and run all IDEA plugin tests
To reproduce TeamCity build use
-Pteamcity=true flag. Local builds don't run proguard and have jar compression disabled by default.
OPTIONAL: Some artifacts, mainly Maven plugin ones, are built separately with Maven. Refer to libraries/ReadMe.md for details.
To build Kotlin/Native, see kotlin-native/README.md.
Building for different versions of IntelliJ IDEA and Android Studio
Kotlin plugin is intended to work with several recent versions of IntelliJ IDEA and Android Studio. Each platform is allowed to have a different set of features and might provide a slightly different API. Instead of using several parallel Git branches, the project stores everything in a single branch, but files may have counterparts with version extensions (*.as32, *.172, *.181). The primary file is expected to be replaced with its counterpart when targeting a non-default platform.
A More detailed description of this scheme can be found at https://github.com/JetBrains/bunches/blob/master/ReadMe.md.
Usually, there's no need to care about multiple platforms as all features are enabled everywhere by default. Additional counterparts should be created if there's an expected difference in behavior or an incompatible API usage is required and there's no reasonable workaround to save source compatibility. Kotlin plugin contains a pre-commit check that shows a warning if a file has been updated without its counterparts.
Development for some particular platform is possible after 'switching' that can be done with the Bunch Tool from the command line.
cd kotlin-project-dir # switching to IntelliJ Idea 2019.1 bunch switch 191
Working with the Kotlin project requires at least IntelliJ IDEA 2019.1. You can download IntelliJ IDEA 2019.1 here.
After cloning the project, to import the project in IntelliJ choose the project directory in the Open project dialog. Then, after project opened, select
Module from Existing Sources... in the menu, and select
build.gradle.kts file in the project's root folder.
In the import dialog, select
use default gradle wrapper.
To be able to run tests from IntelliJ easily, check
Delegate IDE build/run actions to Gradle and choose
Gradle Test Runner in the Gradle runner settings after importing the project.
At this time, you can use the latest released
1.3.x version of the Kotlin plugin for working with the code. To make sure you have the latest version installed, use
Configure Kotlin Plugin Updates.
Compiling and running
From this root project there are Run/Debug Configurations for running
IDEA or the
Generate Compiler Tests for example; so if you want to try out the latest and greatest IDEA plugin
- Run the
IDEArun configuration in the project
- A child IntelliJ IDEA with the Kotlin plugin will then startup
We have a dependencies verification feature enabled in the
repository for all Gradle builds. Gradle will check hashes (md5 and sha256) of used dependencies and will fail builds with
Dependency verification failed errors when local artifacts are absent or have different hashes listed in the
It's expected that
verification-metadata.xml should only be updated with the commits that modify the build. There are some tips how
to perform such updates:
- Use auto-generation for getting an initial list of new hashes (verify updates relate to you changes).
./gradlew -M sha256,md5 help
(any other task may be used instead of
- Consider removing old versions from the file if you are updating dependencies.
- Leave meaningful
originattribute (instead of
Generated by Gradle) if you did some manual verification of the artifact.
- Always do manual verification if several hashes are needed and a new
also-trusttag has to be added.
- If you’re adding a dependency with OS mentioning in an artifact name (
windows), remember to add counterparts for other platforms.
Kotlin is distributed under the terms of the Apache License (Version 2.0). See license folder for details.
Please be sure to review Kotlin's contributing guidelines to learn how to help the project.