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    README.md

    git-tips

    Collection of git-tips, want to add your tips? Checkout contributing.md

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    Tools:

    P.S: All these commands are tested on git version 2.7.4 (Apple Git-66).

    Everyday Git in twenty commands or so

    git help everyday

    Show helpful guides that come with Git

    git help -g

    Search change by content

    git log -S'<a term in the source>'

    Show changes over time for specific file

    git log -p <file_name>

    Remove sensitive data from history, after a push

    git filter-branch --force --index-filter 'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch <path-to-your-file>' --prune-empty --tag-name-filter cat -- --all && git push origin --force --all

    Sync with remote, overwrite local changes

    git fetch origin && git reset --hard origin/master && git clean -f -d

    List of all files till a commit

    git ls-tree --name-only -r <commit-ish>

    Git reset first commit

    git update-ref -d HEAD

    Reset: preserve uncommitted local changes

    git reset --keep <commit>

    List all the conflicted files

    git diff --name-only --diff-filter=U

    List of all files changed in a commit

    git diff-tree --no-commit-id --name-only -r <commit-ish>

    Unstaged changes since last commit

    git diff

    Changes staged for commit

    git diff --cached

    Alternatives:

    git diff --staged

    Show both staged and unstaged changes

    git diff HEAD

    List all branches that are already merged into master

    git branch --merged master

    Quickly switch to the previous branch

    git checkout -

    Alternatives:

    git checkout @{-1}

    Remove branches that have already been merged with master

    git branch --merged master | grep -v '^\*' | xargs -n 1 git branch -d

    Alternatives:

    git branch --merged master | grep -v '^\*\|  master' | xargs -n 1 git branch -d # will not delete master if master is not checked out

    List all branches and their upstreams, as well as last commit on branch

    git branch -vv

    Track upstream branch

    git branch -u origin/mybranch

    Delete local branch

    git branch -d <local_branchname>

    Delete remote branch

    git push origin --delete <remote_branchname>

    Alternatives:

    git push origin :<remote_branchname>
    git branch -dr <remote/branch>

    Create local tag

    git tag <tag-name>

    Delete local tag

    git tag -d <tag-name>

    Delete remote tag

    git push origin :refs/tags/<tag-name>

    Undo local changes with the last content in head

    git checkout -- <file_name>

    Revert: Undo a commit by creating a new commit

    git revert <commit-ish>

    Reset: Discard commits, advised for private branch

    git reset <commit-ish>

    Reword the previous commit message

    git commit -v --amend

    See commit history for just the current branch

    git cherry -v master

    Amend author.

    git commit --amend --author='Author Name <email@address.com>'

    Reset author, after author has been changed in the global config.

    git commit --amend --reset-author --no-edit

    Changing a remote's URL

    git remote set-url origin <URL>

    Get list of all remote references

    git remote

    Alternatives:

    git remote show

    Get list of all local and remote branches

    git branch -a

    Get only remote branches

    git branch -r

    Stage parts of a changed file, instead of the entire file

    git add -p

    Get git bash completion

    curl -L http://git.io/vfhol > ~/.git-completion.bash && echo '[ -f ~/.git-completion.bash ] && . ~/.git-completion.bash' >> ~/.bashrc

    What changed since two weeks?

    git log --no-merges --raw --since='2 weeks ago'

    Alternatives:

    git whatchanged --since='2 weeks ago'

    See all commits made since forking from master

    git log --no-merges --stat --reverse master..

    Pick commits across branches using cherry-pick

    git checkout <branch-name> && git cherry-pick <commit-ish>

    Find out branches containing commit-hash

    git branch -a --contains <commit-ish>

    Alternatives:

    git branch --contains <commit-ish>

    Git Aliases

    git config --global alias.<handle> <command> 
    git config --global alias.st status

    Saving current state of tracked files without commiting

    git stash

    Alternatives:

    git stash push

    Saving current state of unstaged changes to tracked files

    git stash -k

    Alternatives:

    git stash --keep-index
    git stash push --keep-index

    Saving current state including untracked files

    git stash -u

    Alternatives:

    git stash push -u
    git stash push --include-untracked

    Saving current state with message

    git stash push -m <message>

    Alternatives:

    git stash push --message <message>

    Saving current state of all files (ignored, untracked, and tracked)

    git stash -a

    Alternatives:

    git stash --all
    git stash push --all

    Show list of all saved stashes

    git stash list

    Show the contents of any stash in patch form

    git stash show -p <stash@{n}>

    Apply any stash without deleting from the stashed list

    git stash apply <stash@{n}>

    Apply last stashed state and delete it from stashed list

    git stash pop

    Alternatives:

    git stash apply stash@{0} && git stash drop stash@{0}

    Delete all stored stashes

    git stash clear

    Alternatives:

    git stash drop <stash@{n}>

    Grab a single file from a stash

    git checkout <stash@{n}> -- <file_path>

    Alternatives:

    git checkout stash@{0} -- <file_path>

    Show all tracked files

    git ls-files -t

    Show all untracked files

    git ls-files --others

    Show all ignored files

    git ls-files --others -i --exclude-standard

    Create new working tree from a repository (git 2.5)

    git worktree add -b <branch-name> <path> <start-point>

    Create new working tree from HEAD state

    git worktree add --detach <path> HEAD

    Untrack files without deleting

    git rm --cached <file_path>

    Alternatives:

    git rm --cached -r <directory_path>

    Before deleting untracked files/directory, do a dry run to get the list of these files/directories

    git clean -n

    Forcefully remove untracked files

    git clean -f

    Forcefully remove untracked directory

    git clean -f -d

    Update all the submodules

    git submodule foreach git pull

    Alternatives:

    git submodule update --init --recursive
    git submodule update --remote

    Show all commits in the current branch yet to be merged to master

    git cherry -v master

    Alternatives:

    git cherry -v master <branch-to-be-merged>

    Rename a branch

    git branch -m <new-branch-name>

    Alternatives:

    git branch -m [<old-branch-name>] <new-branch-name>

    Rebases 'feature' to 'master' and merges it in to master

    git rebase master feature && git checkout master && git merge -

    Archive the master branch

    git archive master --format=zip --output=master.zip

    Modify previous commit without modifying the commit message

    git add --all && git commit --amend --no-edit

    Prunes references to remove branches that have been deleted in the remote.

    git fetch -p

    Alternatives:

    git remote prune origin

    Delete local branches that has been squash and merged in the remote.

    git branch -vv | grep ': gone]' | awk '{print <!-- @doxie.inject start -->}' | xargs git branch -D

    Retrieve the commit hash of the initial revision.

     git rev-list --reverse HEAD | head -1

    Alternatives:

    git rev-list --max-parents=0 HEAD
    git log --pretty=oneline | tail -1 | cut -c 1-40
    git log --pretty=oneline --reverse | head -1 | cut -c 1-40

    Visualize the version tree.

    git log --pretty=oneline --graph --decorate --all

    Alternatives:

    gitk --all
    git log --graph --pretty=format:'%C(auto) %h | %s | %an | %ar%d'

    Visualize the tree including commits that are only referenced from reflogs

    git log --graph --decorate --oneline $(git rev-list --walk-reflogs --all)

    Deploying git tracked subfolder to gh-pages

    git subtree push --prefix subfolder_name origin gh-pages

    Adding a project to repo using subtree

    git subtree add --prefix=<directory_name>/<project_name> --squash git@github.com:<username>/<project_name>.git master

    Get latest changes in your repo for a linked project using subtree

    git subtree pull --prefix=<directory_name>/<project_name> --squash git@github.com:<username>/<project_name>.git master

    Export a branch with history to a file.

    git bundle create <file> <branch-name>

    Import from a bundle

    git clone repo.bundle <repo-dir> -b <branch-name>

    Get the name of current branch.

    git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD

    Ignore one file on commit (e.g. Changelog).

    git update-index --assume-unchanged Changelog; git commit -a; git update-index --no-assume-unchanged Changelog

    Stash changes before rebasing

    git rebase --autostash

    Fetch pull request by ID to a local branch

    git fetch origin pull/<id>/head:<branch-name>

    Alternatives:

    git pull origin pull/<id>/head:<branch-name>

    Show the most recent tag on the current branch.

    git describe --tags --abbrev=0

    Show inline word diff.

    git diff --word-diff

    Show changes using common diff tools.

    git difftool [-t <tool>] <commit1> <commit2> <path>

    Don’t consider changes for tracked file.

    git update-index --assume-unchanged <file_name>

    Undo assume-unchanged.

    git update-index --no-assume-unchanged <file_name>

    Clean the files from .gitignore.

    git clean -X -f

    Restore deleted file.

    git checkout <deleting_commit> -- <file_path>

    Restore file to a specific commit-hash

    git checkout <commit-ish> -- <file_path>

    Always rebase instead of merge on pull.

    git config --global pull.rebase true

    Alternatives:

    #git < 1.7.9
    git config --global branch.autosetuprebase always

    List all the alias and configs.

    git config --list

    Make git case sensitive.

    git config --global core.ignorecase false

    Add custom editors.

    git config --global core.editor '$EDITOR'

    Auto correct typos.

    git config --global help.autocorrect 1

    Check if the change was a part of a release.

    git name-rev --name-only <SHA-1>

    Dry run. (any command that supports dry-run flag should do.)

    git clean -fd --dry-run

    Marks your commit as a fix of a previous commit.

    git commit --fixup <SHA-1>

    Squash fixup commits normal commits.

    git rebase -i --autosquash

    Skip staging area during commit.

    git commit --only <file_path>

    Interactive staging.

    git add -i

    List ignored files.

    git check-ignore *

    Status of ignored files.

    git status --ignored

    Commits in Branch1 that are not in Branch2

    git log Branch1 ^Branch2

    List n last commits

    git log -<n>

    Alternatives:

    git log -n <n>

    Reuse recorded resolution, record and reuse previous conflicts resolutions.

    git config --global rerere.enabled 1

    Open all conflicted files in an editor.

    git diff --name-only | uniq | xargs $EDITOR

    Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

    git count-objects --human-readable

    Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

    git gc --prune=now --aggressive

    Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

    git instaweb [--local] [--httpd=<httpd>] [--port=<port>] [--browser=<browser>]

    View the GPG signatures in the commit log

    git log --show-signature

    Remove entry in the global config.

    git config --global --unset <entry-name>

    Checkout a new branch without any history

    git checkout --orphan <branch_name>

    Extract file from another branch.

    git show <branch_name>:<file_name>

    List only the root and merge commits.

    git log --first-parent

    Change previous two commits with an interactive rebase.

    git rebase --interactive HEAD~2

    List all branch is WIP

    git checkout master && git branch --no-merged

    Find guilty with binary search

    git bisect start                    # Search start 
    git bisect bad                      # Set point to bad commit 
    git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2         # Set point to good commit|tag 
    git bisect bad                      # Say current state is bad 
    git bisect good                     # Say current state is good 
    git bisect reset                    # Finish search 
    

    Bypass pre-commit and commit-msg githooks

    git commit --no-verify

    List commits and changes to a specific file (even through renaming)

    git log --follow -p -- <file_path>

    Clone a single branch

    git clone -b <branch-name> --single-branch https://github.com/user/repo.git

    Create and switch new branch

    git checkout -b <branch-name>

    Alternatives:

    git branch <branch-name> && git checkout <branch-name>
    git switch -c <branch-name>

    Ignore file mode changes on commits

    git config core.fileMode false

    Turn off git colored terminal output

    git config --global color.ui false

    Specific color settings

    git config --global <specific command e.g branch, diff> <true, false or always>

    Show all local branches ordered by recent commits

    git for-each-ref --sort=-committerdate --format='%(refname:short)' refs/heads/

    Find lines matching the pattern (regex or string) in tracked files

    git grep --heading --line-number 'foo bar'

    Clone a shallow copy of a repository

    git clone https://github.com/user/repo.git --depth 1

    Search Commit log across all branches for given text

    git log --all --grep='<given-text>'

    Get first commit in a branch (from master)

    git log --oneline master..<branch-name> | tail -1

    Alternatives:

    git log --reverse master..<branch-name> | head -6

    Unstaging Staged file

    git reset HEAD <file-name>

    Force push to Remote Repository

    git push -f <remote-name> <branch-name>

    Adding Remote name

    git remote add <remote-nickname> <remote-url>

    List all currently configured remotes

    git remote -v

    Show the author, time and last revision made to each line of a given file

    git blame <file-name>

    Group commits by authors and title

    git shortlog

    Forced push but still ensure you don't overwrite other's work

    git push --force-with-lease <remote-name> <branch-name>

    Show how many lines does an author contribute

    git log --author='_Your_Name_Here_' --pretty=tformat: --numstat | gawk '{ add += <!-- @doxie.inject start -->; subs += <!-- @doxie.inject end -->; loc += <!-- @doxie.inject start --> - <!-- @doxie.inject end --> } END { printf "added lines: %s removed lines: %s total lines: %s
    ", add, subs, loc }' -

    Alternatives:

    git log --author='_Your_Name_Here_' --pretty=tformat: --numstat | awk '{ add += <!-- @doxie.inject start -->; subs += <!-- @doxie.inject end -->; loc += <!-- @doxie.inject start --> - <!-- @doxie.inject end --> } END { printf "added lines: %s, removed lines: %s, total lines: %s
    ", add, subs, loc }' - # on Mac OSX

    Revert: Reverting an entire merge

    git revert -m 1 <commit-ish>

    Number of commits in a branch

    git rev-list --count <branch-name>

    Alias: git undo

    git config --global alias.undo '!f() { git reset --hard $(git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD)@{${1-1}}; }; f'

    Add object notes

    git notes add -m 'Note on the previous commit....'

    Show all the git-notes

    git log --show-notes='*'

    Apply commit from another repository

    git --git-dir=<source-dir>/.git format-patch -k -1 --stdout <SHA1> | git am -3 -k

    Specific fetch reference

    git fetch origin master:refs/remotes/origin/mymaster

    Find common ancestor of two branches

    git merge-base <branch-name> <other-branch-name>

    List unpushed git commits

    git log --branches --not --remotes

    Alternatives:

    git log @{u}..
    git cherry -v

    Add everything, but whitespace changes

    git diff --ignore-all-space | git apply --cached

    Edit [local/global] git config

    git config [--global] --edit

    blame on certain range

    git blame -L <start>,<end>

    Show a Git logical variable.

    git var -l | <variable>

    Preformatted patch file.

    git format-patch -M upstream..topic

    Get the repo name.

    git rev-parse --show-toplevel

    logs between date range

    git log --since='FEB 1 2017' --until='FEB 14 2017'

    Exclude author from logs

    git log --perl-regexp --author='^((?!excluded-author-regex).*)
    

    Generates a summary of pending changes

    git request-pull v1.0 https://git.ko.xz/project master:for-linus

    List references in a remote repository

    git ls-remote git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git

    Backup untracked files.

    git ls-files --others -i --exclude-standard | xargs zip untracked.zip

    List all git aliases

    git config -l | grep alias | sed 's/^alias\.//g'

    Alternatives:

    git config -l | grep alias | cut -d '.' -f 2

    Show git status short

    git status --short --branch

    Checkout a commit prior to a day ago

    git checkout master@{yesterday}

    Push the current branch to the same name on the remote repository

    git push origin HEAD

    Push a new local branch to remote repository and track

    git push -u origin <branch_name>

    Change a branch base

    git rebase --onto <new_base> <old_base>

    Use SSH instead of HTTPs for remotes

    git config --global url.'git@github.com:'.insteadOf 'https://github.com/'

    Update a submodule to the latest commit

    cd <path-to-submodule>
    git pull origin <branch>
    cd <root-of-your-main-project>
    git add <path-to-submodule>
    git commit -m "submodule updated"

    Prevent auto replacing LF with CRLF

    git config --global core.autocrlf false

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